понедельник, 11 марта 2013 г.

Mace & Shestopyor


Mace (from all-Slavic bula — the cone, a tumor, a lump, a knob) — a shock cold weapon with a wooden or metal handle (core) and a spherical head — the shock part which has been quite often supplied with thorns (such weapon still call morgenshterny). Distinguish a usual spherical mace and Shestopyor on which head cutting edges (usually six pieces, from where and the name) were welded. Length of a mace is about 50 — 80 centimeters.
The mace is quite logical development of a club. The first maces with a stone head appeared in a neolith, from the metal — in a bronze age. This weapon is characteristic for the Ancient East. In a classical antiquity it was applied a little; at Romans the mace (keyboard) is entered only in 2 century AD. In the Middle Ages the mace existed in the Muslim East, in Western Europe (from 13 century). The mace was widely adopted in many countries including in Russia at 13-17 eyelids, but gradually I lost fighting value and became a symbol of the power of the military leader. Till 19 century it served as a power and advantage symbol at the Turkish pashas, the Polish and Ukrainian hetmen. At Cossacks remained prior to the beginning of 20 century under the name notch as accessory of stanitsa and settlement atamans.

Shestopyor — an Old Russian shock cold weapon of the XIV—XVII centuries. Represents a mace version on which head 6 metal plates — "feathers" are welded.
Shestoper appeared in the middle of the XIV century. The first options Shestopyor had the total length about 60 cm and triangular section of edges. Their weight reached 2,7 kg. By the beginning of the XV century the shestoper became easier approximately twice.
Length Shestopyor was about 70 centimeters and metals held it usually one hand for a handle separated by a metal ring, carrying out also functions. Sometimes on a shestoper the hook for capture of the enemy weapon was put.
Small weight Shestopyor gave the chance to operate rather easily it, and a starting position for attack the suspended was frequent. From this situation it was more convenient to catch a hook the weapon of the enemy or to carry out hand blow.
Shestopyor served also as a symbol of the power of military leaders. Here and there keeps ceremonial value and today.

Arbalest

The arbalest was invented about 2300 years ago and represented the reduced copy of big obsidional cars, such as arcaballista (in transfer from Latin an arch bow to throw).  The arbalest consists of an arch (which it is fixed in front across a bed) and the machine (bed).  Also the arbalest was supplied with the special mechanism which held the bowstring tense to the full, and when pressing the trigger lever - released it.
Thanks to the qualities the arbalest was the best small arms, than bow.
The arbalest shoots further bow , the short arrow (bolt) which has been let out from a powerful arbalest, possesses huge penetrative force.  Also thanks to the trigger mechanism the arbalest could be in the cocked condition (ready to firing) as much as long, this feature allowed to use an arbalest in the various purposes.  The only thing in what I conceded an arbalest to bow , is in firing speed.  On a recharge of an arbalest some time was required.  At the time of an arbalest recharge the arbaletchik was vulnerable.  Therefore the arbaletchik had a good protective equipment, including a strong board.
In medieval Europe during the period from XI to the XVI century the arbalest becomes more mass small arms, than bow  as ability to use it didn't demand from the shooter of continuous practice and long training (unlike equipment of possession of bows). Arbalests had special success in citizens (it was the effective weapon against the knights chained in armor). At the time of the Middle Ages the arbalest was a fine security measure of fortresses and locks. Even in a peace time garrisons of locks and fortresses consisted generally of arbaletchik, and number of the arrows being in a stock, reached 30-50 thousand pieces. As well as any other weapon, an arbalest throughout centuries repeatedly tried to improve. So, for example, in the beginning arches of arbalests were wooden, then steel and, at last, compound (arbalests with compound arches were reliable, easy shot further). Even there were the arbalests shooting not by arrows, and lead and stone balls (such arbalests were applied generally on hunting). Since XVI century, the arbalest is gradually forced out by firearms. But as the weapon for hunting arbalests continued to exist up to the XIX century.

Bow


Bow are one of the most ancient inventions of the person.  This weapon could hit the target at a great distance, thereby giving huge advantage to his owner.
Originally Bow applied on hunting a bit later - in the war.  At all times Bow and arrows, as well as any other weapon, tried to make the most effective.  So, for example difficult compound Bow from horns of animals shoot further the usual Bow made of a tree.  The main parts of Bow are the staff and a bowstring.  The staff of Bow was made of a tree, by horns and even of metal.  Bowstring did of veins of animals, a hempen rope etc.  One end of a bowstring fastened to a staff tightly, and other end of a bowstring could be removed and put on depending on a situation.  The arrow for Bow had to be easy, strong and well balanced.

Therefore a staff of an arrow produced from strong and easy breeds of a tree, such as a cypress, a cedar, an apple-tree etc.   On the end of an arrow the tip fastened.   It was made of iron (in the ancient time - from a stone and a bone).   The tip had a various form depending on the mission.   For range and improvement of balance of an arrow in flight her tail supplied with plumage.   For this purpose used feathers of large birds.   The arrows intended for firing on small distance, had no plumage.

   Length of arrows was defined by the size of scope of the tense Bow and could be from 75 to 125 centimeters, the weight of arrows reached 50-80 grams, thickness - from 10 to 14 millimeters.  Arrows were stored in special cases - quivers.

In the Middle Ages English two-meter wooden Bow were especially highly appreciated. The archer armed with English Bow, could let out from 7 to 11 arrows the minute, thus all arrows hit the mark, and the distance to the purpose was about 100 meters. What could hit the target at distance of 200 meters at that time was considered as the good shooter. The maximum range of flight of the arrow which has been let out from English Bows, was 550 meters. Bows on the qualities were the ideal weapon for army. It was easy, inexpensive, necessarily was easily made of an improvised material, hit the target at considerable distance, and the main thing possessed possibility of silent firing (ideally the weapon for ambushes). Also, shooting from Bows the lit arrows, it was possible to set fire to any structure and even the ship of the opponent.

Glaive


Glaive — a type of a drevkovy infantry cold weapon of near fight. Consists of a staff (1,2 — 1,5 meters) and a tip (40 — 60 centimeters, width of 5-7 centimeters). The staff usually becomes covered by rivets or courts a metal tape for protection from a pererubaniye. The tip — a blade, looks like ground only on the one hand wide falchion. The thorn parallel or directed at a small angle to a blade departs from a butt of a tip (so-called "a sharp finger"), the employee, first, for weapon capture at blow reflection from above, and secondly, for drawing more effective against the opponents of pricking blows chained in armor (unlike blows cutting, put with a tip). However the main destination Glaive — nevertheless drawing cutting blows. On the lower part of a staff also there was a tip (so-called. "heel"), but it usually wasn't sharpened, and simply pointed — it was used as a counterbalance for balancing of the weapon and for a dobivaniye of wounded.
The name Glaive comes from French.  Practically all researchers carry out etymology of this word to armor.  gladius or to the Celtic cladivos, designating "sword".  However, all early English and French links on Glaive mean a spear.  In this value the word Glaive appears in English approximately with XIV to the middle of the XVI centuries.  The present value Glaive gets the word since the XV century.  Approximately in the same time the word Glaive becomes poetic designation of a sword (in this value it is most often used Glaive in modern French).
There were various modifications Glaive — beginning from identical two-edged narrow long blades on both ends of a staff and to a wide tip reminding an axe on one end and a simple spherical counterbalance on other.  Dvukhlezviyny modification meets extremely seldom and is the weapon of the single as to fight it is possible for it only on rotation, and in close fight the fighter with such glefy will destroy all around, including own colleagues.  In total modifications Glaive about 100.
Glaive it was used as an individual weapon since the 14th century, in particular — as personal arms of arbaletchik in Burgundy. Well I proved to be as the weapon for reflection of attacks of a cavalry. Till the 18th century it was used as the weapon of palace guards, then I went out of use. Now glyphs armed only the Swiss guard protecting Vatican.

Bardiche


Bardiche (pol.  berdysz) — a cold weapon in the form of an axe with the edge bent like a half moon got on a long staff — ratovishche.
The stupid part of a blade intended for a nasazhivaniye on a staff, as well as at axes, is called as a butt, the edge opposite to an edge — , and the end delayed from top to bottom — a kositsa. The staff is attached to iron by means of a butt, a kositsa, nails rivets and thongs. Ratovishche drive in a butt, beat nails rivets through wells in a butt. Such wells usually became from 3 to 7. Kositsa it was attached to a staff by two-three nails and it was wound in some ranks with a thin thong or a rope. Sometimes on each turn the thong was beaten by nails. On the bottom end ratovisha the iron tip (subcurrent) for an emphasis Bardiche to the earth was got both when firing from guns (arquebuses), and during a smart system. In Russia Bardiche appears in the XVI century as the weapon of streletsky armies and city protection. Here it occupied a niche of the European halberd, but carried out a bit different functions. It was the weapon only about 170 centimeters long and weighing 3 kilograms and served also as a prop when firing.  Early Bardiche the XVI century had one edge on the top end of a staff.  Probably, Bardiche it was calculated and on a prick.  Later, in the XVII century, the top ends began smith in two shorter edges.  The planes Bardiche covered with a carved pattern — or simple points and schematic leaves, or in difficult drawings with the image of the unicorns struggling with dragons, various chimeras and flowers.
Berdysha of horse Sagittariuses and dragoons became the smaller sizes in comparison with infantry and had on two iron rings on a staff for a running belt.

The weapon of a similar design appeared in Europe early enough. In Russia Bardiche ppear in the first half of the XV century, and later gain general distribution, as the weapon of streletsky armies and city protection. Here it occupied a niche of the West European halberd, but carried out a bit different functions. Peasants were recommended to store the weapon among which were and Bardiche on a case of war. Regiments of a new system quite often armed Bardiche as to people this weapon was more habitual. Cloths of Russians of the berdyshy differed the various form changing over time. Early Bardiche the XVI century had one edge on the top end of a staff and a toporovidny cutting edge. The edge was rather small — 20 — 50 cm. Later, in the XVII century, the top ends began often Bardiche in two shorter edges. Edge length to 60 — 80 cm increased also. Cloths ceremonial the berdyshy covered with a carved pattern — or simple points and schematic leaves, or in difficult drawings with the image of the unicorns struggling with dragons, various chimeras and flowers. It was the weapon up to 170 centimeters long and weighing about 3 kilograms. For comparison — weight streletsky berdyshy was about 1,5 kg.
Since the end of the XV century Bardiche ere applied in Sweden. Were in use and in other countries. In Poland as the infantry weapon they were entered in 1674 and soon forced out sabers. They differed from Moscow smaller weight and about 120 cm long therefore when firing from them rose on a knee. At the beginning of the XVIII century they went out of use

Halberd


Halberd (German Helmbarte = beech.  axe with a hook, zaimstvo.  from ital. alabarda) — the kolyushche-cutting weapon with a long staff on which end the axe or a pole-axe and having a tip reminding a spear fastens.  Was on arms of infantry of a number of the European countries in the XIV—XVI centuries.

In the XV century strengthening of protective equipment of a cavalry demanded from infantry to use the weapon considerably bigger penetrative force than a sword or a fighting axe.  Into fashion entered I threshed, and then and two-handled swords, but the greatest the success was got in Europe during this period by a halberd.

The halberd represented a combination of a kopeyny edge, a pole-axe and hook edge on a long staff.  However, versions of halberds there was a set — the edge of a pole-axe could be very wide or very narrow, the pole-axe could even be replaced stamping (then the halberd was called "a lyutsernsky hammer"), крючьев could be much — both behind, and on each side pole-axes.  As for an edge, there were options of halberds at all without it.  But by the XVII century I triumphed, having become classical, halberd type with the narrow hatchet developed by a kopeyny edge and one hook.

Length of halberds fluctuated within 200 — 240 cm, and weight thus could be from 2.5 to 5.5 kg.  Halberds of the XV—XVI centuries when edges still were often made on technology of welding were the most massive, and the main task was probity a continuous knightly armor.  In the XVII century halberds of the smallest weight were applied.

Slightly more long — sometimes more than 300 cm were the sea "boarding" halberds intended, generally for tightening of boards of the ships at a boarding for what they were supplied with very large hook. On the other hand, them it was possible and to interfere with a boarding, striking the enemy on a board of its vessel.

Orendolkh, Shaybendolkh & Nirendolkh


Many people gave to a dagger the courage status. The most known dagger in the late Middle Ages was Nirendolkh (a dagger having "kidneys"). On the handle of this two-edged dagger having four sides, there were 2 outgrowths in the form of tubers which promoted such name, especially, in the states speaking German. In the Anglo-Saxon territory it was called by Ballock-Dagger that in transfer means "a dagger with eggs". This name appeared as a result of a method of the carrying popular in 14-15 centuries, and is concrete: vertically, at the level of a stomach, therefore, that a sheath was between feet, and the handle rose up. Rather frank and very correct fallichesky symbol.

The Shaybendolkh (a dagger having a washer). This dagger was created in the 14th century, received the name by means of 2 disks from the iron, strengthened on both terminations of the handle, providing protection of a hand. If the owner of this dagger closed the hand having protection by means of a latny mitten, on the handle, plates carried out opening overlapping in a fist, and at once the bottom plate represented the correct support of other hand by means of what the chance to make more essential blow was given and to spoil protection of the rival. Knights kept these daggers in a beautiful sheath. The Shaybendolkh didn't undergo fashion of 14-15 centuries and kept initial appearance. The blade of this dagger has various forms: starting from a pricking tetrahedron and ending a two-edged dagger. The dagger having a blade with four sides, was called as Misericordia (in a translation from Latin - "mercy") as it was often applied to "disposal" of tortures of rivals. Certainly, this dagger didn't hinder battle with the big rival.




The Orendolkh (a dagger having ears). It is called so not because rushed behind an ear or because it carried out a kovyryaniye in an ear and not because of the reason of cutting of ears (likely the last nevertheless was). He inherited a name by means of 2 original plates which were attached to the handle instead of a navershiya. The state which has created this dagger which was popular in Western Europe in the 14th century, it is possible to call Spain applying this type of weapon since the 13th century. Since the beginning of the 15th eyelid this magnificent dagger began to apply in Italy, and most of all it was popular on a place which was slightly to the north of the Alps.